Theistic argument suggests various features about God…

Theistic arguments shouldn’t be considered in isolation from, but in combination with, one another. Bracketing the ontological argument (for a maximally great Being, whose nonexistence can’t be conceived), each successful theistic argument suggests various features about God:

Cosmological argument: A very powerful personal Cause of the contingent universe exists; the fact that the universe began to exist a finite time ago suggests a personal Agent who brought something from nothing.

Teleological argument: An intelligent designing—and thus personal-Agent exists, who intends certain ordered ends for creation. Though not every aspect of creation is orderly, such as the quantum world, order can incorporate and accommodate randomness.

Moral argument: A personal, intrinsically good Being exists-rather than a impersonal monistic “One” beyond all distinction and beyond good and evil.

Argument from consciousness: A supremely self-aware Being exists—rather than some abstract principle or force.

Argument from reason: A truthful, rational Being exists.

Argument from beauty: A beautiful and alluring Being exists.

Argument from religious experience: A transcendent, awe-inspiring Presence exists whom many persons have encountered, further reinforcing the weight of other theistic arguments.

Argument from miracles: An engaged, concerned personal Agent exists. If certain events—say, Jesus’ resurrection—are better explained within Israel’s religious context of divine activity rather than within a naturalistic one, we have reason for believing in the triune God. Although this is technically “special revelation,” we can still appeal to such miracles as publicly accessible and worthy of historical investigation.

Paul Copan, from Loving Wisdom, kindle location 1073

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